7. Textbook Dinosaurs, 1859


Natural history encyclopedias were very popular in the nineteenth century, but they rarely included extinct animals. Samuel Goodrich's Illustrated Natural History of 1859 provided an appealing departure from the norm. Midway through the chapter on reptiles, after a discussion of the common chameleon, we are suddenly presented with a short section on "fossil lizards", illustrated with four large wood engravings on succeeding pages. We reproduce here the second of these cuts, Hylaeosaurus. The other illustrations show Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, and a collection of marine reptiles such as Ichthyosaurus. All of the illustrations were copied from the Crystal Palace restorations, as Goodrich attests in a note.

Hylaeosaurus was discovered by Gideon Mantell in 1832 and was first announced in his Geology of the Southeast of England, 1833. It was one of Richard Owen's original three dinosaurs, and in restoration stood prominently on the Crystal Palace grounds.

Another very popular work that illustrated the dinosaurs in their habitats was Louis Figuier's World Before the Deluge. The dinosaurs in Figuier are not only more dynamic, but they are less indebted to the Hawkins' restorations.


Goodrich, Samuel Griswold. Illustrated Natural History of the Animal Kingdom. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1859. This work was on display in the original exhibition as item 7.

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